Kampala Uganda e-mail : [email protected] Com By Judea The Jihads in the 19th century West Africa were a series of revolutions or holy wars that characterized the history of the region sweeping from 1804 in Hausa land, 1818 in Minas and 1815 in Futz Gallon area under the leadership of Autumn Dan Food, Seek Muhammad and AAA-Han Muar respectively because of the UN fair conditions in society.
These wars were intended to open a period of social Justice, security and prosperity in trade for all me who accepted Islam as seen below; Official corruption, heavy taxation, confiscation of subject’s properties, oppression of he poor in general and slavery which instilled perpetual fear, was as much a source of discontent to the Muslim as to the non-Muslim subjects. This state of affairs led to tension and frustration especially to the Muslim subjects, as Smith quite rightly observed: “The position was frustrating for Muslims were generally conscious of being culturally far superior to the pagans.
Their religion, of course, left them in no doubt about this, and on the practical level they were likely to be superior citizens, knowing much more about the world than did the pagans, and conserving a vital monopoly of literacy. (C. Smith, p. 169) Another evidence comes from the fact that the Jihads were intended to purify Islamic norms, which were to bring honesty to society. After the decline of Mali and Shanghai empires, there was decline in Islamic faith in Western Sudan. Islam religion was mixed with began practices like over drinking and marrying non-Moslems, a situation that could compromise the honesty and evenhandedness in society.
Historians A. Jay and Michael Tidy contend that ” most of the ruling dynasties especially among the Hausa state, Islam sat lightly on them and all sorts of UN-lilacs practices such as legal taxation, enslavement of Moslems and unlawful seizure of property were going on. ” (Dad Peahen , A. Jay & Michael Tidy, p. 44) Most of the rulers of western Sudan were tyrants who mistreated, oppressed and suppressed their subjects and they failed to administer Justice with impartiality. It was therefore the desire of the Sadists to free the people of west Africa from oppressive regimes.
Thus, the Jihads were a movement for social Justice reform. Autumn, Dan Food for example, an agreement in which Moslems were granted 19th Century Jihads and social justice, security and prosperity. By Wallow Jude ear veils” (Dad Peahen , A. Jay & Michael Tidy, p. Ass) On the economic scene, the 19th century Jihads had strong economic attributes. Governments in western Sudan had been over taxing their subjects for example in the town of Flank, merchants always complained of heavy taxes in their trade while Flank pastoralist were opposed to high taxes on their cattle.
This forced them to jump, aboard the Jihad’s Bang wagon to eliminate all these. In writing about the economic results from the Jihads, Jay e-tall write that ‘the establishment of a uniform of government in place of many competition ones a reduction in internecine ears that had characterized the history of the Hausa states… Peace and order reigned in most parts.. And this greatly stimulated agricultural and industrial activities” (Dad Peahen , A. Jay & Michael Tidy, p. 49) Even the cruel method of collecting the taxes that existed before the Jihads was provoking that fundamentalists could not stand it.
It was ruthless in operation and tax collectors used to whip people in the collection of taxes and imprisoned others. This was greatly resented by the Sudanese subjects and they rose up against the regimes of the day and to end the ruthless method of tax collection. Coupled with the above is that the wealthy Flank felt that their wealth was insecure under the Hausa rulers who were openly Jealous of the Flank wealth. They therefore sought to establish a government, which would guarantee security to their property.
Through the creation and improvement of Islamic Education in the Sudan, Jihads displayed their intention of greatly expanding Islamic literacy especially in Hausa and Flank speaking areas. Here, schools were built especially in areas of western Sudan. In regard to poor education before the Jihads, Jay writes “though learning and education did not die out in the western Sudan in the 18th century, it is never the less true that the tradition of scholarship had declined. Some of the mammals could not even read the Arabic language, the language of the Koran. ” (A. Jay teal p. 5) The political units the were later established by the Jihads are another Justification that security and prosperity would be achieved. These units had better administrative machinery than the old regimes, they were more Just, peaceful, orderly and less corrupt. This was a remarkable achievement for the Jihads overspent as a fulfillment of their intended goals. ” Atman’s Jihad had far reaching consequences both inside and outside Husband. Politically it led to the establishment of a single Flank empire in place of the many rival states in Hausa land. ” (A.
Jay teal p. 49) Professor Small contends that the Jihads were for the social economic Justice of all who had converted to Islam. He provided proof when he wrote: “That there was an Islamic movement with all that Islam stands for by virtue of its recognition and provision for previous religions, its civilizations and history, shaking he socio-political order after successfully eroding its cultural and intellectual basis and that it had achieved all this by education and patient persuasion, precisely not to compromise Islam, is simply but subtly overlooked or ignored.
Had that movement been conceived or presented on a tribal basis as some wants us to believe it would have been doomed to fail not to mention the fact that it couldn’t have found a place in A. S. Small, 1979. P. 24) Indeed the governors, the Shadiest, were simultaneously consolidating internal order and security, Justice and equity without which the ideal they fought for cannot be liaised. It should be added that this consolidation was unique, not simply because of its comprehensiveness not even because of its intensity but mainly because of the sincerity and the sense of mission with which it was carried out.
The campaigns of Muhammad Belle and Dan Food for example with their captives and booty have been well noted by many scholars, what seemed to have escaped notice is this sincerity and sense of mission with which it was executed. Even if later generations turned it into a slave raiding exercise, the fact still remained that Belle was not fighting for captives or booty but for spreading Islam From the social point of view, the fact that the Jihads brought great revival in and spread of Islam which had in turn meant great stimulus to education and learning shows that they were in intended for social economic Justice. This elevated the status of slaves and peasants and forced some nomadic peasants to become settlers. ” (A. Jay teal p. 53) Historian Kevin Shilling like Jay contends that; “Islam and Literacy spread more widely through the populations and the unity of Islam brought an end to the destructive wars of inter state rivalry. Trade flourished and Kane in particular became a major market center. However, there is also a case to show that Jihads were political movements under guise of social economic reform.
The overthrow of Moslem administration is testimony to this. Another case also is that the mass killings, breakdown of societies and loss of property as a result of these Jihads reveal more than “purification” of society. Behind the banners of social-economic Justice, there was also political agendas and robbery. To crown it up, it can be noted that though there traces of injustice with in the course of the Jihads, like the violence that was manifested, these were not the intended oils but they were accidents typical in any revolution.