The first theme is labeling and deviant identity theory of crystallization, one of the main contributors to this theory was Howard Becker who in 1963 wrote the book Outsiders” which provided the foundations of labeling theory. Becker looked at how social groups created deviance by creating the rules that classed certain acts as deviant. Labeling looks at how a person can be labeled a deviant by society thus becoming a deviant, if a person is labeled a drug taker or prostitute then they have a chance of becoming a drug taker or prostitute.

Once a person had attained a deviant label then they were pushed into outsider groups in society and would continue to participate in the deviant behavior. Muncie states : Labeling continues to offer an important challenge to traditional criminological approaches. By focusing on definitional issues it is able to reveal how the concepts of ‘crime’ and ‘deviance’ are not universally agreed upon, but are socially constructed, contingent and contestable. (Muncie, IPPP) Some of the weaknesses in this theory is it does not differentiate between criminal acts such as drug taking, murder, rape, speeding ticket, if a crime is caused by social control then the individual is not at fault. It is also looked upon as to determinist and goes not take into account free will. The second theme is theory of delinquency and crystallization, delinquency was looked at by Sykes and Matzo (1957) when they looked at techniques of Naturalization.

A delinquent will look for ways to avert responsibility for there criminal actions and will also look for loop holes in the law to rationalist there actions. Sykes and Matzo state that there is five contributory factors to the rationalization process these are ” denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of the victim, condemnation of the condemners, and appeal to the higher loyalties. Denial of responsibility is when a delinquent will blame another group for his criminal act such as his parents did not give them a good upbringing or his school let him down, they look at themselves as the victim.

Denial of injury is when they rationalist there action because nobody was hurt, for example vandalism or shoplifting from a large store chain who they believe can afford the lose. Denial of the victim is when they state that the victim deserved it. Condemnation of the condemners they blame the other group for there actions and try to deflect accessibility and appeal to higher loyalties they are fighting for the ethical good. Criminology By alleging 971 we strive to achieve personal wealth and gain an individual who does not achieve this feel Justified in delinquent behavior.

Theory of political economy and crystallization this looks at how capitalism can shape delinquent and deviant behavior. Chemicals argues : “The heart of the capitalist economic system is the protection of private property, which is, by definition, the cornerstone upon which capitalist economies function. It is to surprising, then to find that criminal law reflects this basic concern. ” (Harmless, IPPP) Chemicals and Snider argue that capitalism encourage deviant behavior because society is driven to achieve personal wealth and the ownership of private property.

This has made a greater divide between the classes as the rich get richer and the poor get poorer causing conflict. This in turn can cause deviant and delinquent behavior if a individual does not achieve the wealth that they would like then they could turn to criminal activity to achieve it. There is an inequality in capitalism tenet the social group who have all the personal wealth and private ownership and the social group lower down who do not.

The rules and laws are made by the social group at the top of the capitalist ladder and causes more conflict between the upper and lower classes in society. The final theme is radical theory of crystallization which is an extension of conflict theory and also known as neo-Marxist criminology. In 1973 Ian Taylor, Paul Walton and Sock Young published ” The New Criminology this was a radical alternative to existing theories of crime and deviance. Harmless, IPPP) Taylor et al argue that society and the inequality between the individuals that hold the wealth and power are the main contribution to the cause of crime and deviant acts. They argue : ” Deviants are not Just the passive victims of capitalism: they are actively struggling to alter capitalism. ” (Harmless, IPPP) They also argue that if a poor individual steals from a rich individual then they are helping to change society, they want to see capitalism replaced with a different type of society.

Unlike other Marxist Taylor et al ant to see capitalism replaced by a socialist society rather than communist. This essay has talked about the causes of crime and crystallization using four themes, the four themes being labeling and deviant identity theory, theory of delinquency, theory of political economy and finally radical theory. It has talked about some theorists in each of the themes and how they have contributed to each theory. This essay has also talked about the differences between each theme and what the theorist argue that is the causation of deviance and criminal behavior.

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