If one were to look up the word criminology in the dictionary it is very well possible they would find that it would be defined as a scientific study of crime as a social phenomenon. Social phenomenon? What is that?? Criminology is a social science rather than a division of law. Although there are numerous different theories surrounding criminology, they all allocate a common goal: the search for the causes of criminal behavior in the hopes that this data can be transformed into policies that will be valuable in handling or even eliminating crime.
Criminology is often a term used for the study of criminal behavior plus the factors and causes of crime. This study also deals with the social collision of any crime of the criminal itself and on the victim and his or her family. There are two major classifications in this discipline of social science. First is classicist approach while the other is known as positivist approach of criminal study. The positivist approach of criminology is referred to the state in which a person loses its mental control and will commit a crime.
In this spieling the factors of inner and outer circumstances are believed to be responsible for losing control from mind. On the other hand the classicist approach argues with the factors suggested by positivist. According to this discipline every person has the ability to make a decision under any circumstances this is not to be believed that a person has loses his decision making ability. To understand criminal justice, it is necessary to understand crime. Most policy-making in criminal Justice is based on criminological theory, whether the people making those policies know it or to.
In fact, most of the failed policies (what doesn’t work) in criminal Justice are due to misinterpretation, partial implementation, or ignorance of criminological theory. Much time and money could be saved if only policymakers had a thorough understanding of criminological theory. At one time, criminological theory was rather pure and abstract, with few practical implications, but that is not the case anymore. For example, almost all criminologists today use a legalistic rather than normative definition of crime.
A legalistic definition of crime takes as its starting point the statutory definitions contained in the penal code, legal statutes or ordinances. A crime is a crime because the law says so. Criminology centers its attention on the criminal as a person, his behavior, and what has led him or her to a life of crime. Criminology also seeks to understand the criminals’ genetic makeup, to learn whether there is an inherited tendency to crime. It also takes into consideration such issues as the individuals socioeconomic background, family background, educational opportunities, and childhood type associations.
Early criminologists, in the 18th century, believed that everyone had the ability to make rational choices; therefore, their theory was that if a rational person knew that a particularly painful punishment was in-store for them, then they are less likely to commit the crime. This led to the creation of such punishments as beatings, torture, banishment, death, fines, and public humiliation. In the 19th century, it was said that criminal behavior was biologically determined.
Also, it was not until the 19th century that imprisonment became the most common penalty for crimes. One major interest of criminologists is correction: what should be done with the criminal once he or she has been caught, Criminology By helmsman confinement to turning prisoners away from a life of crime when released. Criminology is often criticized for the fact that there are so many competing theories of crime causation rather that one unified theory. Though these theories are different, they all help with the fight against crime.