describe and Evaluate two psychological explanation of crime. ‘ In this essay I’m going to describe and evaluate two psychological explanation of crime. The crime is an act that constitutes an offense that may be prosecuted by state and is punishable by law. (Precautionary, 2013) Bandanna’s Social Learning Theory says that people learn from one another by observation, imitation and modeling. Social Learning Theory, is when people observe it first so if goes by Attention. Then they remember where you have paid attention to, for example mental images and its Retention.
Third one is when you reproducing the act that you have observed and remembered and its Reproduction. Finally, you have a good reason to imitate the crime so it’s Motivation. Three main motivation factors which determine whether we decide to copy are vicarious learning, External motivation and Self reinforcement. Vicarious Learning; is how people learn by watching others being rewarded or punished. For example children are watching a cartoons or films where heroes are rewarded for getting rid of the bad people but still, there is a lot of violence.
External motivation; is when a rimming act has been acquired through social learning, the individuals commits a crime and the behavior is rewarded. Self- reinforcement; this is a self motivation factors associated with a crime. This behavior is more motivation if some internal need is satisfied with excitement, for example car-jacking. Criminal behavior can be learnt from role models like famous people, family, gangsters or even people that have an influence on you. When people see a criminal behavior that is rewarded they imitate it.
For example children, will imitate what hey see in media (heroes being rewarded for getting rid of bad people) and usually there is a lot of action and violence. Bandeau conduced a study to investigate if social behaviors (I. E. Aggression) can be acquired by imitation. Method that Bandeau, Ross and Ross tested 36 boys and 36 girls from Stanford University Nursery School aged between 3 to 6 years old. The role models were one male adult and one female adult. Bandeau arranged for 24 boys and girls to watch a male or female adult, behaving in aggressive way towards a toy called a ‘Boob Doll’.
The adults attacked the doll really aggressively and sometimes used a hammer or threw the doll in the air and shouted ‘Pop, Boom’ The researches showed how children were aggressive by observing the children in the nursery and Judged their aggressive behavior on 4, 5 point rating scale. (McLeod, 2011) Bandeau wanted to show by using this method that children that experienced the violence or seen a lot are more likely to become aggressive later on and other children who do not experience violence are less likely to become aggressive in future.
Later on, Bandeau carried out the same experiment and ornithology essay By Jesus adults who have been punished then children did not replicate the behavior but those who have been rewarded then children have copied the behavior. This supports the Social Learning Theory because the children, who have watched the aggressive TV programmer or experience the violence somewhere else, are more likely to become aggressive in the future. However in some cases, there are many more factors such as the environment that can impact on the level of aggression.
Also it is difficult to test as the behavior isn’t always exhibited immediately. John Bowl was an English psychologist who investigated the effects of children separated from their mothers at early years. (1-areas) Maternal means that the natural tendency that a mother has to behave or react in a particular way around her child or children. (Definition of ‘maternal instinct’ , 2013) Deprivation means that something is missing. It describes the state of not having something.
Hypothesis is more then a guess but less than a theory. In science, a hypothesis needs to have a lot of testing before it can be called theory. A detective for example can have a hypothesis about a crime. Three key points are CONTINUOUS, CRITICAL PERIOD and CARE GIVER. The first one is Continuous and it’s when you have a relationship between infant and one caregiver (MONOTONY). Disruptions and separation is likely to lead to affections psychopaths (experience little guilt, affection, sense of responsibility).
The other one is that the relationship must develop before the age of 2 and half years and this process is called Critical Period. Last one is the relationship with a Caregiver and this does have to be the mother. .Attachment Theory. Attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space. (Bowl, 1969) Conrad Lorenz was a psychologist who came up with a theory of attachment. It is suggested that children come into the world and they are automatically attached to others as this will help them to survive.
The determinant of attachment is not food but care. The stages of the attachment was that new-born (up to 3 months of age) is attached to any human and most babies respond equally to any caregivers as they need care. After 4 months, they have a reference to certain people but accept care from anyone. After 7 months, they have a special preference for a single attachments figure and they look to particular people for security, comfort and protection and unhappiness when they are separated from a special person.
That is seen that the baby have formed attachment and it’s usually formed in the first year of age. After 9 months the baby is really attached and it forms several attachments. Harrow Harrow, become with a support to an attachment theory. He did a number of studies on attachment in monkeys. He said that monkeys have to form their attachment in the first year of their life (critical period). He took one little monkey with other two fake monkeys. One of them was a cloth and other one gave out the food.
The monkey was more likely to spend time with the cloth mother as the animal could feel safe. The animal only would go to a wire monkey when was hungry. Once it was fed, it returned to the cloth mother for most of the day. If a scary object was placed in the cage, monkey took refuge with the cloth mother. This supports the Another research to support to John’s Bowl theory is 44 Juvenile Thieves. At the ginning Bowl have met 44 people who were Juvenile thieves who attend a child guidance clinic and then compared them to with a control group of 44 (emotionally disturbed, did not steal).
More than half of the Juvenile thieves had been separated from their mother for longer than six months during their first five years of their lives and two of them experienced separation in the control group. He classified some of them as a affections psychopaths or not affections. Bowl concluded that affections psychopaths are unable to form relationships and that the reason for he ant-social behavior and emotional problems in the first group was due to maternal deprivation. All of the research supports are linked to John Bowl MID and it’s the 44 Juvenile Thieves, Harrows Monkeys and Conrad Lorenz (attachment theory).
However some researches showed that the 44 thieves have moved around a lot during their childhood so they probably never formed any attachment and is suggested that they were suffering from privation, rather than deprivation. Also in 44 thieves he should look more about the attachment with father or school experiences they had or see he cause why the child was taken away from parents. These psychological theories offer an explanation of crime but they fail to consider the role of Biology. One biological explanation is X”.
Normally we inherit 23 chromosomes from each parent. Women have two X chromosomes and men usually X and Y chromosome. In some cases a male will inherit an extra chromosome which is Y and making him a ‘super male’ because he has X”. When a male gets this extra Y chromosome, there are increased chances for him to become aggressive. Also this ‘super male ‘ syndrome was confirmed as they did studies of prison and results wowed that more people in prison have this extra Y chromosome then in general population.
This is different to the psychological explanation because it considers a genetics side why people commit crime. Another psychological explanation is the role of the society. One sociological explanation is self-fulfilling prophecy which is seen as a form of labeling and a form of stereotyping. A form of a labeling is when a person observes another person or a group and then it has an expectation about this person/group in their interactions and by this way it creates the expected behavior. A form of a stereotyping is the act f Judging people because of their actions or behavior.
Stereotyping can be Judged by the certain race group or even people that live in certain areas. This could explain crime as if a young person is labeled or stereotyped as antisocial person then observers expect from them to behave in anti-social way and they confirm expectations and see the confirmation in their behavior. Observed people will behave in anti-social ways due to the encouragement from the person that observes the whole situation so the pressure and the feeling that the pro-social behavior is ignored, means any effort to change is pointless.