Evaluate the arguments and evidence for the view that poverty and material deprivation are the most important barriers to educational attainment By goanna_xx Evaluate the arguments and evidence for the view that poverty and material deprivation are the most important barriers to educational attainment. (20) It is assumed by some people that there is a major relationship between social class and education, I. E. The higher class the child does better at educational achievement. Many of these people assume that poverty and material deprivation are the main barriers.
Douglas, a sociologist who also believes that out-school factors such as poverty and material deprivation affect the child’s educational attainment, has done a study to prove this. Douglas examined the careers of 5,362 British born children. He followed them through primary school and secondary school up to the age of 16. He found that the length of stay in education was related to social class, as the middle classes stayed longer in education. Middle class parents were seen to express greater interest in their child’s education.
The parents visiting he school more frequently and encouraging children to stay on at school, resulting in higher educational attainment levels, displayed this. Douglas argued that during primary solicitation, middle class children received more attention from their families and this contributes to their higher achievement. Therefore, this is how Douglas believes that out-school factors affect a child’s educational attainment. However, Douglas has also been criticized due to his sample size being too small and not enough. Critics say that from such a small sample group generalizations cannot be made.
Hence, some argue that not only poverty and material deprivation are the most important barriers to educational attainment there are also cultural backgrounds. Hyman is a sociologist who studied class subcultures. He argued that the value system of the lower classes creates a self-imposing barrier; it is the values of the lower classes, which prevent success in the education system. This is how Hyman believes that culture is the most important barrier to educational Another sociologist who believes that culture is the major barrio to attainment. Educational attainment is Sugarcane.
He provided an explanation for differences in attitude and outlook of the middle and working classes. He argued that middle class occupations provided an opportunity to advance income and status, but working class Jobs reached their full earning capacity very quickly. Sugarcane claimed that differences in these Jobs produced differences in their attitudes. The working class were more concerned with immediate enjoyment and therefore this led to low educational attainment. However, Bernstein another sociologist believes that speech patterns not culture is the major barrier affecting educational attainment.
He assumes that there are two main codes, the restricted code and the elaborated code. That the working class mainly used this code. The second code being the elaborated code, his was used in the exams, by teachers and in the education system. He assumed that this code was linked to the occupations for the middle class because they have to make decisions and manual Jobs done by the working class do not require this. He also assumed that the middle class could use and understand both these codes but the working class could only use and understand the restricted code.
This was how language spoken affected the child’s educational attainment. On the other hand, Bernstein lacked to understand that the working class might be able to use the elaborated code as well. In addition, his study was made up of assumptions; there is no solid evidence for his theory. As a result, it was assumed that the background of the lower class was insufficient to them. This was supported by the compensatory education being introduced. Compensatory education provided additional educational provision for those seen to be culturally deprived.
In Britain, it darted in the sass and the government gave more resources for buildings in low- income areas and increased teacher salaries. Most recent attempts to provide extra assistance are through introducing schemes like after school clubs, Seas, AMASSES and learning mentors etc. However, not only out school factors exist, there are also in schools factors, which are supported by the interactions. The basis of the interactions view of education and their reason for differential education achievement of different social groups within society is how schools influence individual performance.
They believe that teachers are very significant, in this process. They make the initial Judgment on pupils and come to label them quickly. Kiddies and Harvests support this labeling theory. Harvests study is based on interviews of teachers and classroom observation in two secondary schools. He found that teachers make decisions of pupils as the year progresses and this can be separated into three stages. The first stage being speculation, this is when teachers make guesses of pupils based on appearance, discipline and personality. Secondly, elaboration, at this stage the guess is either confirmed or dismissed.
The last stage being stabilization, this is when pupils are regarded as a specific type based on their actions. This is how Harvests believed labeling affected a child’s Kiddies, on the other hand found there was a tendency for pupils from a higher status, white collar backgrounds to be placed in ‘A’ streams whereas those from unskilled manual backgrounds were placed in ‘C’ streams. Despite the fact that all streams were to be taught, the same content Kiddies found that teachers modified the method and information they transmitted depending on which stream they taught.
Therefore, less knowledge was given to the lower streams creating educational inequality because they were not seen as ideal pupils. This was how Kiddies saw that the child’s educational attainment was affected. Consequently, some argue that only out school factors affect the educational attainment, however in school factors cannot be ignored. In conclusion, it cannot be assumed that only one factor is important than others in determining the educational success or failure of people. Other factors also need to be considered e. G. Gender and ethnic background. Social class cannot be seen in isolation.