Usually the same criteria are used to define Juvenile offenders in different state jurisdictions. False 9 Under parents patria, the king as sovereign acts to protect children and other dependents. True 10 Juvenile Justice has been substantially unaffected by alternative philosophies that differ from the rehabilitation emphasis. False 11 Juvenile courts are unknown in most other industrialized countries throughout the world. False 12 Over two million youths come into contact with the criminal Justice system annually. 13 Once offenders are placed in corrections, they are no longer in the criminal Justice yester.
False 14 Jurisdiction is the power of a court to hear a case. 15 There are about 1,000 law enforcement agencies in the United States. False Juvenile Justice Chapters 1-4 Study Guide By thudded Almost all ordinances aimed at Juveniles are status ordinances since they are not applicable for adults. True 17 Sheriffs deputies and city police officers are the law enforcement officers who have the most amount of contact with Juveniles. True 18 Juveniles who loiter late at night cannot be taken into custody by police officers for any reason since loitering is not prohibited per SE.
False 19 The stage where information is obtained about Juvenile suspects, including their names, addresses, and ages, is called arraignment. False 20 Juveniles are not entitled to bail. 21 ROR means released on own recognize. Preconception agreements between defendants and the state are known as indictments. False Proceedings for establishing a trial date where a formal plea to charges is entered are ladled arraignments. True 24 Exculpatory evidence is evidence that tends to show the greater guilt of a defendant. 25 Incantatory evidence is favorable for defendants charged with crimes.
True 26 Preliminary hearings or examinations are usually conducted for the purpose of determining probable cause. True 27 The standard of proof in Juvenile proceedings is preponderance of the evidence. 28 Beyond a reasonable doubt is only applicable to criminal proceedings. False 29 Juveniles are not entitled in any Jurisdiction to a trial by Jury. False Aggravating circumstances might include whether or not the youth cooperate with police to help them detect and apprehend other offenders. False 31 A mitigating circumstance might be the mental health of the defendant. True 32 33 Probation is part of corrections.
Reducing the number of Jails is the goal of the Jail removal initiative. False 35 Referrals of Juveniles to Juvenile court can only be made by police officers. False 36 Parole is a conditional release from incarceration. 37 Because of changes in the law, there are no longer any Juveniles in adult Jails. False About half of all Juvenile cases that come before the Juvenile court are handled informally. True 39 Petitions are documents directing police to arrest a particular Juvenile. False Police officers are prohibited by law from placing Juveniles in Jails, even for short roods.
False 41 One reason Juveniles are held in Jails temporarily is that it is difficult to establish their true age on the basis of their appearance. True 42 Neighbors of youths are prohibited by law from filing complaints that might bring these youths to the attention of the Juvenile court. False 43 Being arrested and taken into custody are the same thing. Intake officers can order the incarceration of any Juvenile to a long-term Juvenile facility if the officers believe that the Juvenile is guilty of a felony. False 45 Juvenile court prosecutors have broad discretionary powers.
An adjudicatory hearing is the Juvenile equivalent of a criminal trial for an adult. 47 Intake is usually presided over by the local Juvenile court Judge. False Intake probation officers attempt to screen the more serious Juvenile offenders from the less serious ones. True 49 50 A nominal punishment might be a verbal warning or reprimand. True 51 Secure confinement is most closely associated with probation. False 52 Doing what is best for the children is consistent with the parents patria doctrine. 53 Official documents that call for a youth’s subsequent appearance in Juvenile court ND allege carious offenses are called petitions.
True 54 Juvenile court proceedings are becoming increasingly adversarial. True 55 It is often true that the greater the formality of a Juvenile court proceeding, the harsher the punishment imposed by Juvenile court Judges. True 56 A decision about the guilt or innocence of a Juvenile is called a disposition. False 57 In most Jurisdictions Juvenile court Judges have nearly absolute discretion to determine how their particular court proceedings are conducted. True 58 Juveniles are convicted of offenses in Juvenile court proceedings. False 9 An adjudication means that a Juvenile will be incarcerated.
All adjudications of Juveniles mean that all Juveniles who are adjudicated are delinquents. False 61 Over two million Juveniles com into contact with the following system annually: Criminal Justice 62 Regarding decisions and discretion about Juvenile offenders, intake officers have: Considerable discretion Which of the following are components of the criminal Justice system? A) Law enforcement b) Courts c) Legislature d) All of the above The word process is sometimes used to describe the criminal Justice system. This is cause the criminal Justice system is : a) a sequence of people-processing stages. C) fragmented. ) all of the above. 65 The power of courts to hear particular kinds of cases is called: Jurisdiction The largest component of the criminal Justice system is: Law enforcement 67 A conditional disposition would be: Probation The Juvenile equivalent of an adult sentence is called a(n): Disposition 69 Juveniles may be: a) arrested. B) taken to shelters and group homes. C) taken into custody. 70 When Juveniles are apprehended by police for suspicion and not necessarily for any particular crime, they are: Taken into custody. 1 Obtaining one’s name, address, fingerprints, photograph, and other vital information is a part of what process?
Booking 72 Detentions and secure confinement almost always follow: a) a finding of guilt b) intake c) adjudications d) none of the above 73 ROR means: Released on own recognize 74 Preconception agreements involving guilty pleas NAS favorable sentencing are: Plea bargains 75 Defendants who are most likely to be released on ROR are those: Who are employed, white, middle-class females 76 Sureties that are posted to guarantee one’s subsequent appearance in court are ladled: Balloons Incantatory 78 Evidence that is favorable to the defense in a criminal case is called; Exculpatory 79 Circumstances that might make the punishment imposed by a sentencing Judge more severe would be: Aggravating Determining that a crime was committed and that a particular person or persons probably committed the crime is: Probable cause 81 Preliminary hearings are held primarily for the purpose of establishing: Probable cause 82 The standard of proof in criminal proceedings is: Beyond a reasonable doubt 83 Juries that determine one’s guilt or innocence are called: Grand Juries Circumstances that tend to lessen punishments imposed by Judges during sentencing are: Mitigating 85 The assemblage of agencies and persons who supervise offenders after court proceedings might likely be called: Corrections A conditional incarceration alternative for a first offender convicted of a crime is: 87 A mitigating circumstance might be: a) one’s youthfulness. B) cooperating with police officers to detect other criminals c) mental illness d) all of the above An aggravating circumstance might be: Being a gang leader 89 The Jail removal initiative is aimed at:
Reducing or eliminating Juvenile confinement in Jails Being taken into custody and being arrested are: Different in meaning 91 Official documents filed with Juvenile court that allege that a certain Juvenile is delinquent are called: Petitions A finding by a grand Jury that a crime has been committed and that a particular person may have committed the crime is called: True bill 93 A Judgment in Juvenile court is called: Adjudication When a stern reprimand is given as a sentence in a Juvenile court proceeding, the juvenile has been: Adjudicated 95 A conditional deposition might be: ) participation in group therapy b) payment of victim compensation c) community service Criminal information are typically filed by: Prosecutors 97 An industrial school placement of a Juvenile is commensurate with what type of placement for adult offenders?
Prison 98 The standard of proof in Juvenile courts, where Juveniles are not in Jeopardy of losing their liberty, is: Preponderance of evidence Common law in the United States was derived from: England Parents patria means: “The father of the country” 101 A standard definition of delinquency: a) exists for all Jurisdictions ) is consistent throughout all states and the federal system c) limits delinquents to all those under age 18 102 Offenses committed by Juveniles that would not be crimes if committed by adults are called: Status offenses 103 It can be said of all Juveniles delinquents that they: Commit crimes 104 Demonstrativeness’s generally means to: Remove Juveniles from custodial institutions In most Jurisdictions, Juveniles can be charged with crimes at age: a) 18 b) 20 C) 19 106 Persons under the age of 7 were presumed capable of formulating criminal intent under common law.
False 07 Common law emerged in the American colonies in the sass. 108 A shire is the chief law enforcement officer of an English country. False 109 Reeves are English countries. 110 Chancellors were officials in England who administered the affairs of the King in different remote areas. True 111 Transportation was a method used by England to rid itself of criminals. True 112 The Birdseed Workhouse was the first Juvenile reformatory. 113 Poor laws were used to incarcerate debtors for indefinite periods. True 114 The poor laws targeted the socioeconomics disadvantaged. 115 One example of the voluntary slavery pattern is the indentured servant. True 116 The Hospital of SST.
Michael was the first hospital to treat Juvenile diseases. False 117 The Walnut Street Jail was known for its terrible living conditions for inmates. False 118 Solitary confinement is a recent concept created during the early sass in U. S. Prisons. False 119 Child-savers were drawn largely from the lower socioeconomic classes. False 120 Hard-core delinquents were targeted for treatment in houses of refuge. True 121 The power of the state over the family in child custody cases was illustrated in the ease of Ex part Crosses. True The case of O’Connell v. Turner had to do with child abuse and neglect. False 123 The founder of Hull House was Jane Addams. 24 Truants are persons who have run away from home and are considered untreatable. 125 An example of voluntary servitude was the indentured servant. True 126 The first Juvenile court was established in Illinois in ! 899. True 127 By the end of the Korean War, only ;half of all states had Juvenile courts. False 128 The Compulsory School Act created children’s tribunals. 129 Prior to Juvenile courts, Juvenile affairs were administered largely by social service agencies. True 130 Juvenile courts in most Jurisdictions operate the same way. 131 One of the most influential philanthropic organizations of the eighteenth century upon correctional practices was the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Persons.
True 132 Small communities were known for their Shillelagh’s atmosphere. False 133 Juveniles viewed as chattel meant that they were counted like so much farm property and livestock. True 134 Sweat shops exploited Juvenile labor during the late sass and early sass. True 135 Throughout much of the 20th century, Juveniles had little or no legal standing in U. S. Courts. True 136 Efficient Juvenile offender proceedings is sometimes called actuarial Justice. True 137 Jurisdiction usually refers to the power of a court to hear particular kinds of cases. 138 For a majority of the states, the upper age limit for Juvenile courts is 21 . False 139 adults committed them.
False 140 The power of Juvenile court Judges is such that Juvenile delinquency may be whatever they say it is. True 141 The parents patria doctrine has had little influence on Juveniles and Juvenile courts. 142 The get-tough movement is a response to perceived escalating Juvenile violence by interested citizens. True 143 In most Juvenile courts, Juveniles are convicted of various offenses following an adjudicatory hearing. False 144 Almost every Juvenile court is a court of record. 145 Juvenile court Jurisdiction is the same among different local and state legislative definitions of Juvenile offenders. False 146 All Jurisdictions have the same lower age limits for Juveniles. False 147 The most common age of accountability in the U. S. s 21 . 148 Delinquency is an act committed by a Juvenile which would be a status offense if omitted by an adult. False 149 Compared with runaways, curfew violators tend to be more serious offenders. True 150 Virtually all runaways are pretty much the same in terms of their social and personal characteristics. False 151 Stigmas usually result in Juveniles defining themselves as deviant or delinquent. 152 Truants and liquor law violators are more inclined to be chronic offenders compared with runaways. True 153 Categorization is closely associated with labeling theory. 154 Status offenders may become criminals if they violate court orders. True 155