criminology
the scientific study of crime, especially why people commit crime
criminal justice
the study of the practice of the criminal justice system – law enforcement, the courts, & corrections
With the _____ school, people “gain” free will
classical
The classical school feels that crime & deviance is the result of a ______ analysis
cost-benefit
3 assumptions in Thomas Hobbes’ “state of nature”
1. the “natural condition of mankind” is what would exist if there were no government, no civilization, no laws, & no power to restrain human nature
2. the state of nature is a “war of all against all”, in which humans constantly seek to destroy each other in the constant pursuit for power
3. life in the state of nature is “nasty, brutish, & short”
The solution to the state of nature is what Hobbes called the ______, an agreement to give up some personal freedom in exchange for living in a safe & orderly society
social contract
Positivism is the idea that it is possible to decide the specific causes of behavior using _____
scientific approaches
Positivism is a ______ theory, meaning crime & deviance are caused by forces beyond an individual’s control
deterministic
Most scholars currently working from the positivist perspective are ______
post-positivist
Is the post-positivistic perspective probabilistic or deterministic?
probabilistic
How is the interest of critical theorists different from the interest of positivist theorists?
positivist = what causes crime?

critical = the social construction of law & crime

Crime from the conflict perspective is a byproduct of ______
social inequality
2 places from which crime arises under the conflict perspective
1. the effort of those in power
2. those positioned lower in the social structure
The basic assumption of the Marxist theory of crime is that the majority of the population are exploited by ______
capitalism
______ posits that a direct relationship exists between the interest of the ruling class & the criminal justice system
instrumental Marxism
According to instrumental Marxism, how does the ruling class affect the law?
they decide what is criminal
According to instrumental Marxism, who applies the law?
the dominant class
primitive rebellion hypothesis
crime is a necessary outcome of inequality in capitalist societies
crimes of accommodation
crimes of the powerless
What does it mean that crimes of accommodation are “false consciousness”?
actually maintains the capitalist system through increased law enforcement
crimes of domination
crimes of the powerful – control, economic domination, government, & social injury
Structural Marxism posits a _____ relationship between the interests of the ruling class & how social class institutions operate
indirect
Chambliss’ theory is an example of ______ Marxism
structural
stigmata
physical manifestations of atavism (evolutionary throwbacks) [according to Lombroso, societies could determine criminals early in life through this]
_____ theories influenced movements such as eugenics, which lasted throughout the early 20th century
biological
______ theories note that crime rate remains high over time in certain city neighborhoods, even as the ethnic profile of the areas change
ecological or environmental
______ theories suggest that young males in particular engage in deviant subcultures (e.g. gangs, selling drugs) in order to gain status in marginalized neighborhoods
cultural & subcultural
What is the difference between attributing racial/ethnic disparities to “differential involvement” vs. “differential selection”
involvement = more offenders are non-white

selection = the system treats minority offenders differently

Under feminist criminology, is there a single unified feminist theory of crime?
no!
Is feminist criminology simply the study of women & crime or women as victims?
no!
the generalizability problem in criminological theory
why we cannot just “add women & stir”
3 current issues facing feminist criminology
1. according to criminological theories (including feminist theories), ‘maleness’ is the single best predictor of criminal behavior – but theorists still have not adequately explained female offending
2. feminist analysis has largely ignored women of color, women of different social classes, non-heterosexual women, & other social locations of criminology
3. when conducting research, women are often considered either offenders or victims
The current topic among feminist scholars is the _____ of race, class, & gender
intersection
Developed as a legal theory, _____ theorists study the relationship between race, racism, & power
critical race

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