4 societal divisions based on status that go into class
1. income
2. wealth
3. occupational prestige
4. education
Sociologists & criminologists often refer to a person’s class as their _____
socioeconomic status (or SES)
2 things whose relationship defines & structures class for Marx
1. work & labor
2. ownership of property & means of production
4 main classes in capitalist society
1. Bourgeoisie (the owners of capital, the means of production, & the ability to purchase the labor of others)
2. petite bourgeoisie (own sufficient means of production & property, but still must work in order to survive – small manufacturers & business owners, artisans & craftsmen)
3. proletariat (the working class who only have their labor to sell)
4. lumpenproletariat (the unemployed & unemployable, the social riff-raff)
income
sources of individual revenue over some period of time
revenue
money coming in to your household
wealth
your assets at a single point in time (minus what you owe others – debts & outstanding loans)
6 examples of assets
1. property
2. cars
3. stocks
4. bonds
5. mutual funds
6. savings accounts
6 forms of inequality between class gaps that makes mobility difficult
1. family structure
2. parenting styles
3. school test scores
4. college attendance & graduation
5. employment opportunities
6. neighborhood conditions
anomie theory
Robert Merton’s theory that states that we are all brought up in a culture that emphasizes material & monetary success
meritocracy
the culture of the American Dream & anomie theory; people move ahead solely based on their abilities
the disjunction between ideal & reality causes people to feel _____ & adapt to reach goals through other means, including crime
strain
corporation
an organization that is approved to act as a “legal person” for some activities

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