sex
the biological anatomical difference between males & females
gender
the societal & cultural significance we attach to the presumed biological differences defined by “sex”
What does it mean that gender is usually taken for granted & “essentialized”?
we believe that it is an inherent, immutable quality
“doing gender” (the classic sociological concept)
gender is not just something we are, but something we do in interaction with others
gender roles
the expectations regarding proper behavior, attitudes, & activities of males & females
6 components of how boys are supposed to be masculine
1. controlling
2. dominant
3. independent
4. manipulating their environment
5. assertive
6. competitive
5 components of how girls are supposed to be feminine
1. relatively passive
2. loving
3. sensitive
4. submissive
5. supportive
patriarchy
a society organized around male domination
sexism
the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other
paternalism
the view that women are in need of protection & cannot be held responsible for their actions
chivalry
a form of “benevolent sexism”
feminism
the advocacy for equality for the sexes in opposition to patriarchy & sexism
Is feminism a unitary theory?
no!
How do different forms of feminism differ?
involves different assumptions about the source of gender inequality
liberal feminism: source of gender inequality?
gender role socialization
radical feminism: source of gender inequality?
the patriarchy
Marxist feminism: source of gender inequality?
women’s subordinate class status within a capitalist society
occupational segregation
occupations that are mainly done by women have lower earnings (e.g. pre-k, elementary, & middle-school teachers, librarians)
4 low-wage & minimum wage jobs typically occupied by women
1. cashiers
2. childcare
3. home health aids
4. maids & housekeeping
How do women’s caregiving tendencies contribute to the pay gap between men & women?
nearly 20% of employed caregivers say that they have missed professional opportunities, suffered financial losses, and/or needed to take time off of work due to caregiving responsibilities (e.g. caring for a child; caring for sick, elderly, or disabled family members)
When was the Equal Pay Act enacted?
1963
Women are expected to have certain political priorities, usually involving children & education, that unite them as a _____
voting bloc
_____ out of 6 women has been the victim of attempted or completed rape in her lifetime
1
Among victims of intimate partner violence, 1 out of _____ women have experienced severe physical violence by an intimate partner (e.g. hit with a fist or something hard, slammed against something) in their lifetime
4
feminist theories of crime
posit that violence against women is due to the sexist, patriarchal values of society
Until 2012, by definition (FBI) could men & boys be victims of forcible rape?
no!
Do rape statistics include males who have been incarcerated?
no!

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