the scientific study of the phenomena & causal relationships related to the victimizations
Constitutive Criminology
redefines crime as the harm resulting from humans investing energy in harm-producing relations of power…crimes are no less than people being disrespected
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
the primary source of information on criminal victimization in the United States
dark figure of crime
the number of crimes that occur, but are not reported to law enforcement & therefore do not appear in official crime statistics; can be reduced by victimization surveys
Society has a tendency to blame individuals for becoming _____
just world hypothesis (just world fallacy)
the belief that the world is orderly, just, & predictable & that actions have predictable consequences
2 types of crime that the poorest individuals in society are most likely to be victims of
1. violent
2. property
It is estimated that one in four households experienced at least one victimization of _____ crime in 2010
white collar
Hate crimes are classified according to the perpetrator’s _____
With the exception of _____, males are more likely to be the victims of violent crime than females
Many female victims of violence are victims of _____
intimate partner violence (IPV)

*the preferred term in criminology for domestic violence as it is more inclusive of all types of partner violence*

4 main types of intimate partner violence
1. physical
2. sexual
3. threats
4. psychological/emotional violence
routine activities theory
focuses on routine patterns in people’s daily lives, & asks how they may be related to crime rates
3 factors that must come together at the same time & place for a crime to occur according to the routine activities theory
1. there must be a motivated offender who is willing to break the law
2. the motivated offender must come into contact with a suitable target
3. there must be the absence of a capable guardian
What does the routine activities theory assumed about motivated offenders?
an offender will always exist
Is the suitable target always the same according to the routine activities theory?
no! (a target’s value varies from person to person & does not solely depend on an object’s monetary worth)
What is meant by a “lack of capable guardian” in the routine activities theory?
the target must be poorly guarded in order for the crime to occur
_____ theory is the micro-version of routine activities
risky lifestyle
Routine activities & risky lifestyles are the theoretical basis for _____
situational prevention

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